When a young African American girl by the name of Linda Brown was denied admission in 1951 to her local elementary school in Topeka, Kansas, her case would go to the Supreme Court as prime example of racial discrimination. Board versus Board of Education of Topeka was decided on May 17th, 1954, proving federal intolerance to racial segregation in an unanimous decision, with Thurgood Marshall leading the prosecution, backed by many, including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. In 1896 Plessy versus Ferguson ruled that separate but equal accommodations in railroad cars was legal, but for Linda Brown, her local school was closer and far better than the Black alternative, miles away. The new ruling partially overturned past legislation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Brown versus Board of Education landmark victory was a major stepping stone in the Civil Rights Movement, ultimately leading to the end of racial segregation in all public facilities. Though organizations in the United States would continue to seek protection and promotion of the right to a good basic education for all public school students, racial injustices would continue to affect the social, educational, and political landscape over decades to come -- to the present day.
The following articles are drawn from Proquest Historical Newspapers, which informs and inspires classroom teaching and learning.
- Just So You'll Know. (1958, Sep 27). Afro-American (1893-1988)
- Slack, S. (1960, Dec 17). Negro Education--'The Unfinished Revolution': Little Rock Led the Resistance. New York Amsterdam News (1943-1961)
- Plaintiff In Historic Suit Wins Award. (1961, May 27). Afro-American (1893-1988)
- It's Now Justice Thurgood Marshall: He Won. (1967, Sep 02). New York Amsterdam News (1962-1993)
- McKenzie, J. (1969, Jan 20). Today....A Gesture Of Reconciliation? Boston Globe (1960-1989)
- Ayres, B. D., J. (1973, Oct 28). Fighting An Old War On Same Front: School Integration The Nation A Black Plurality. New York Times (1923-Current File)
- De Facto School Segregation. (1973, Nov 26). Chicago Tribune (1963-1996)
- Congressional Black Caucus Reports To the People. (1977, Oct 27). Atlanta Daily World (1932-2003)
- Greenberg, J. (1978, Jun 01). Reflections On Opening School Doors. The Hartford Courant (1923-1995)
- Clay, W. (1984, Jun 08). Many Obstacles To Overcome In Education. Philadelphia Tribune (1912-2001)
- Chase, B. (2000, May 25). Guest Editorial: NEA Committed To Making Brown Versus Board Of Education A Reality. Los Angeles Sentinel (1934-2005)
- Dobbs, M. (2004, Jan 18). U.S. School Segregation Now At '69 Level: Study Shows 15-Year Decline; Hispanics Less Integrated Than African Americans. The Washington Post (1974-Current File)
- See Brown versus Board of Education of Topeka, National Archives, which includes classroom resources and research links.
- Digital Archive: Brown v. Board of Education, Civil Rights Digital Library, University of Michigan, offering documents and images which chronicle events surrounding the Brown v. Board of Education United States Supreme Court case.
- Balkin, Jack M., ed. What Brown v. Board Should Have Said: The Nation's Top Legal Experts Rewrite America's Landmark Civil Rights Decision. New York: New York University Press, 2001. e-book
- Klarman, Michael J. Brown v. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. e-book
- Patterson, James T. Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. e-book
- School Integration, Barnard School, Washington D.C., Courtesy of PICRYL
- Special News Slide, Courtesy of the Gottesman Libraries
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