Self-Regulation in the Flipped Classroom
Flipped classroom is a pedagogical approach that "exchanges the time used to deliver basic knowledge in class and the out-of-class time for applying the knowledge or doing homework” (Lai & Hwang 2017). With such arrangements, educators hope to use valuable face-to-face time to help students as they apply knowledge to solve problems and interact with them more deeply to address their individual needs.
There have been many studies on the effectiveness of the flipped classroom. Thai, De Wever, and Valcke (2017) found that students in a flipped classroom had better learning performances and higher levels of self-efficacy compared to those in a face-to-face or e-learning class. Asarta and Schmidt (2017) found that the flipped model widens achievement gaps between different learning performance groups. Low achieving students performed more poorly in the flipped classroom than in a traditional classroom setting, while high achieving students presented the opposite - they performed better in the flipped classroom.
While more research on this pedagogy is needed, one research direction that considers adding self-regulation to the flipped model shows great potential to improve student learning. Lai and Hwang (2017) conducted a study on self-regulating flipped classroom approach in elementary math classes. Students started with goal setting (what strategies do I plan to use? how much time do I think I will spend? where do I plan to learn?what score do I wish to get? etc.) before the flipped classroom learning process, and they evaluated their self-regulation (what strategies did I actually use? Where did I actually study the materials?) at the end. The findings revealed that self-regulation in flipped learning improves learning performances and students' self-efficacy.
As more technologies are used in the classrooms to facilitate learner-centered activities, Lai and Hwang’s study reminds us that self-regulation is a great meta-cognitive skill for students to effectively navigate technology-enabled learning resources and activities.